In today’s part of the serie about psychomotor development by children, we focus on the period between 25 and 30 month. Your child is maybe already able to ride on a tricycle or bicycle with training wheels, or playing with beads and making tassels, dressing and undressing pants, or buttoning a coat, which was unimaginable a short while ago. The child is able to draw specific things, building a tower of 8 cubes. The running time improves with every week, but child will be learning to run for longer. (previous part from the serie).
ROUGH MOTOR SKILLS
Till 2,5 years
After reaching 2,5 years, your child should be able to jump on one leg, bouncing of and jumping into the air. Up until two years, the child only hinted jumping by bending the knees, without bouncing off the ground. Child that is 2,5 years old is sufficiently stable. There are no problems when getting over obstacles in a playground, the child is also able to carry a fragile object without falling down. Walking on toes and heels is also achieved.
2 years of age
Children older 2 years love to ride on a tricycles or bicycles with training wheels. Pick an ideal terrain for ridding. The muscles of your child won’t be likely strong enough to climb up a hill, or riding on a rocky trail. Asphalt roads are the best without any bigger elevations. If you live on a hill, take with yourself a rope, which you can tie to the handlebars, and you can make it easier for the child when going up a hill.
For easier pedaling are tricycles and bicycles with have the pedals in the middle between the front and back wheels. Pedals that are places on the front wheel are usually very hard to control.
FINE MOTOR SKILLS
Till 2,5 years
What is the child able to do alone?
- The child should be able to control the fine motor movements such as stringing beads, pushing cord through small holes, buttoning jacket or pants (it is easier to unbutton).
- Your child is able to unzip a jacket or put on the pants. Of course it depends a lot on the size and shape of the the button and how big is the hole compared to the button.
- Drawings of the child are much more neat. Your child should be able to paint a figure with head, eyes, nose, mouth, ruffled hair, long arms and legs, often such drawing looks like a sun.
- The child should be also able to draw a closed circle (up until now the circle’s start and end was never connected). Children often draw the drawing turned in 90 or 180 degrees. „the figure” therefore may lay or stand on the head.
- When playing with cubes, your child should be able to build a tower from 8 cubes or build a train from 3 cubes without the chimney - that is several cubes after each other as wagons.
Tip for a game with cubes
If you would want to motivate the child to play with cubes, get cubes which hold onto each other well. It is also ideal to get a firm mat where the child could play with the cubes. If you will build the tower on a soft carpet from wooden cubes, the tower will start to collapse very quickly, and other structures won’t hold very well either. The child will start to lose interest in playing.
PERSONALITY OF YOUR CHILD
Personality of your child is already well obvious. Everything the child does, is a test towards recognizing success, abilities and options, learning about oneself through what the child is able to do independently.
The child will try to help you in all possible ways and often even in activities, which are not safe for them (peeling and cutting potatoes). We recommend in such situation to adapt the activity to the child, without discouraging the child from doing the activity (for example you can give the child table knife, which is not so sharp, and the child can cut the potatoes to smaller pieces). The child will be happy, and feel as a fully fledged helper, and at the same time the child won’t lose interest and will always offer help.
Taste of success
Success is for child in this age very important, especially when perfecting the abilities. It strengthens the feeling of pride and satisfaction. The child will be also able to act on behalf himself/herself.
It doesn’t work without responsibility
You should also teach the child to be responsible.
- The child should be able to take on the blame (if someone gets hurt or something gets broken).
- The child should be able to clean after himself/herself, with a little help (broken toys, spilled food).
- The child should learn to say „sorry”, i someone gets hurt.
- The child should learn to respect the rights of others.
Fears and concerns
If you have to leave the child, assure him/her, that you will be back soon. You will dissolve the fears of the child, before you will leave. If the child is afraid (of people, darkness, imaginations etc.), hear out the child with understanding and try to find some explanation, which will calm your child down.
2,5 years of age
If the child reads books and you choose literature focused on literature with more demanding vocabulary, the development of the speech will be likely much faster.
Children with lower vocabulary:
- Have active vocabulary of 200 to 300 words,
- Use simple grammar,
- Compose simple sentences,
- Still use childlike jargon.
Children with higher active vocabulary:
- Have active vocabulary three times bigger,
- Can correctly use declension and conjugation,
- Call themselves as „I”.
Mistakes of bigger children:
- They still lisp,
- Switching the phones (phonetics),
- Switching the word order.
As a „broken record player”
Children in this age love „language rituals”, such as listening to the same storytelling over and over. Therefore be patient, if the child will demand to read the same bedtime story over and over.
Yesterday and tomorrow?
Children are able to use words, which are connected to time (past, presence, future). It may seem as if the child understands the chronological order. But in fact, everything that happened, will be indicated by the words „yesterday”, even though the event may have happened several months ago, meanwhile „tomorrow” will mean an event about which the child is excited, even though it may happen in a week. The chosen terms for future and past may be sometimes swapped, but at the same time they may use correct conjugation of the verb (for example: „tomorrow we will go to the zoo” or „tomorrow i have been by grandpa”). Understanding the conjugation will be developing till the 4th 5th year of age of the child.
What’s your name and where do you live?
The child should know how to say:
A child that is 2,5 years old should be able to say the his/her whole name (alternatively answer to a question).
The child may know how to say:
Where approximately they live (city, part of the city).
MOTIVES FOR GAMES
Vegetable print - home production of prints
Even know we will offer you recipe for a game, which you can play with your child at home during a bad weather.
From vegetables you can make prints, by using a small and sharp knife with which you will carve out a simple motive such as triangle, circle, star or rectangle. Ideally it is possible to used hard vegetables such as potatoes or carrots, but you can also use apples etc. afterward cut the unwanted parts around the sides to get the final shape.
For printing use for example water colors or temperas. Use various shapes for creating pictures of for example: train, sun, tree, house, you can also depict leaves, and you can also attach real leaves to the picture.
Published in magazine Uzlíček, no: 12/2007
Author: Mgr. Iva Bílková, FYZIOklinika fyzioterapie Ltd, Prague, Czech Republic